What you need to consider is Portable Appliance Testing in United Kingdom

PAT Test Certificate, testing for PAT is an issue that many people have heard about, but aren’t 100 % sure of its significance or what requires it to conduct it. In this article, we’ll examine a thorough examination of the details associated with testing for Pat and the reason why it’s important, PAT Test Certificate.

What tests are PAT?

“The Portable Appliance Test”

Is the term for a series of tests for inspection and electrical that are carried out on portable devices in order to make certain that the equipment is safe to use. It is also referred to as the examination and testing for Electrical Equipment.

It is essential to be aware that performing a Portable Appliance Test doesn’t just involve plugging the device to the tester for PAT and determining whether it’s capable of passing or failing. Portable Appliance Testing includes documentation and maintenance of files.

In the beginning it is crucial to understand why Portable Appliance Testing is important and the process that led to its creation.

The format has four main laws that can be used as a basis for Portable Appliance Testing:

  • The Health and Safety at Work Act of 1974 is applicable to both employees and employers who work at home. It also requires every employee to take care of their own security and that of their coworkers.
  • Management of Health and safety at Work Regulations In order to make sure that the Health and Safety at Work Act is implemented correctly, every employer is required to conduct a risk assessment to ensure that employees as well as other employees who aren’t employed by them aren’t exposed to threats of any kind.
  • This means that employers that they are responsible for providing equipment that is appropriate of the reason for which it’s intended to be used.
  • Three laws form the principal reason for the requirement for portable Appliance Tests.To comply with the laws The Company has to make sure that every apparatus is in this case electrical, as long as it is safe to use.
  • The second part of the law is essential since it’s the main driver of how and by whom is responsible for the Portable Appliance Testing is carried out.

The Regulations contain two key definitions within the regulations. They are:

  1. Electrical system is all that generates electrical energy store, transmits, or uses electricity.
  2. Duty holder is the person in charge of electric equipment.That means that if you are involved in the operation or testing in electrical equipment, then you’re regarded as being responsible and hence the “duty As a Duty holder, you’re legally accountable to safeguard yourself and your family members while working using any device that is electrical.
  3. What does this make these definitions so crucial? an Portable Appliance Test on a piece of equipment that is electrical, you are the owner of the responsibility and the person responsible for an electrical circuit.Your security as well as the safety of others is your responsibility.
  4. It is related to what is considered to be the primary regulation of the Electricity at Work Regulations which is Regulation 16 – Persons to be skilled in avoiding accidents or hazards.
  5. The basis of this rule is that unless you’ve got the necessary technical expertise or skills to carry out an undertaking, or are under the supervision of someone else for who is responsible for the task, you shouldn’t be able perform the task if you’re likely to cause harm or injury.
  6. This means that unless the required experience or knowledge to perform this Portable Appliance Test you shouldn’t perform this test.

Expertise and know-how:

What is technically expertise and knowledge? It is essential to note that, until now, there has been no legislation in place that is being analyzed to specifically defining particular qualifications or roles, i.e. there is no mention of an accreditation like City and Guild 2377 mentioned or a specific job such as chartered electrician, or an electrical engineer registered. It is because it is acknowledged that while an individual is a certified professional or have the specific field this doesn’t mean that the individual is proficient in all areas are included in the certification or position.

It’s difficult to prove this in the majority of situations. This is why formalized qualifications are needed. In the previous example the example above, where a tiny company employs 25 employees. In their offices, there is an array of IT equipment, such as fans, heaters for desk, and etc. The company chooses to make arrangements for their person who works for them will carry out the entire Portable Appliance Testing in house.

They don’t have an individual with the necessary skills and knowledge to conduct these tests. Hence they make the decision to take an employee on a Portable Appliance Testing course, the successful completion of the course will confer the employee with an internationally recognized certificate. After the course has been completed and they receive the certificate is a sign that the individual has demonstrated an acceptable level of knowledge and technical proficiency and is judged to be competent enough to pass the test.

A different scenario is an instance of a registered domestic Installer who is a member from the part P scheme companies, similar to the NICEIC. To become registered it is necessary that they at a minimum, have demonstrated their proficiency by attaining the required qualifications and also be evaluated by the person. This person is in a different position than the person that was previously mentioned. They have demonstrated that they possess the necessary skills and knowledge to plan, design and manage new electrical systems in the houses of individuals.

They may not be trained to conduct tests like the Portable Appliance Test, but they’re aware of the risks and hazards of working with electrical currents. The person in question would require a Portable Appliance Testing qualification? But not necessarily. They are entitled to the rights to conduct PAT testing in accordance with the guidelines set out by the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Testing’s Code of Practice. are conscious of the risks and dangers associated with using electricity. They should be able to be aware of the guidelines laid in this document and perform the tests in the manner advised in a safe manner.

What is the specifications to test mobile appliances?

There’s a common misconception that it’s a simple device that plugs into, but it’s much more complex than that. It’s a little more complex than the one you think. IET Code of Practice is broken down into different categories:

Portable appliances and equipment are simple to transport when operating e.g. Toaster and Kettle, hair clippers, etc.

Hand-held equipment and devices these devices are portable and require by design, hands-on contact. e.g. hair clippers drill 4″ angle grinder:

  • Mobile equipment/appliances: this is equipment is similar to the first two categories, but is larger or heavier e.g.refrigerators and portable air conditioners
  • Appliances that are stationary – These are pieces of equipment that are not designed to move and are typically heavier than 18kg e.g.ovens and washing machines, etc.
  • Fixed devices/appliances are as the name suggests, are objects that are permanently fixed once they are installed e.g.pillar drill
  • Appliances or equipment that are built-in (also referred to as built-in equipment) Appliances built into an appliance, e.g.an oven, various kinds of dishwashers
  • IT equipment e.g.PC’s, laptops, printers, photocopiers
  • Extension leads which include the reel version and multi socketed versions.

If you have a specific piece of equipment that is in the office, then the recommendations of the manufacturer must be sought out.

When discussing the various types of equipment, we should be aware of the various types of electrical equipment and the ways they can safeguard users in the event that they affect the examination of eyes as well as any electrical tests that are to take place. There are two types of protection which can be used to protect against electric shocks. the two types are

Basic Protection prevents contact between components designed to live, for instance through insulation or sealing them off to prevent those who come near them.

“Fault Protection”

Offers security in case exposed electrically conductive parts in an electric device get energized because of an error. This is achieved by using double or reinforced protection, as well as by providing equipment with an earth path which uses the automatic disconnect of electricity to electrical system.

There are five kinds of equipment. We will be only looking at the three that are the most frequently utilized. The five classes are:

  • Class 0
  • Class 01
  • Class I
  • Class II
  • Class III

Classes 0, 1 are incredibly uncommon today, however in the 70’s it became impossible to market equipment that was classified in the class1.

Class 1: This type of equipment relies on the principle of insulation for live components in order to avoid contact with live components under normal circumstances. If a malfunction occurred and the exterior components of the device went live, the device is dependent on the wiring, in the event it’s conductive and connected to the earth by its supply cable and also the fixed wiring in its installation. Kettles, desk fans and electronic heaters for fans are just a few types of equipment that are classified as Class I.

Class II-This type of equipment is based on the usage of two insulation layers (double insulation) or an insulation equivalent to two layers (reinforced insulation) to protect users in the event of a the device’s failure. While the device isn’t connected to earth the insulation is in an arrangement to prevent any electrical energy from entering any space of the device which could cause damage. Garden equipment like lawn mowers, electric strummers are just a handful of instances of this.

The class III type of equipment is powered by a SELV (Separated Extra Low Voltage) source. It will not exceed the 50V a.c. A majority of Class III equipment is not subject to tests with PAT. Phones and Laptops are two examples of equipment that are class III. Something to remember when working with class III devices is that while the device itself might not require testing using PAT, the charging device might.

A image of PAT Test Certificate

What exactly is needed for this Portable Appliance Test?

It is divided into three components: Documentation and the Visual Inspection along with the Testing. The last two parts make what’s known as the Combined Inspection and Testing.


Documentation is often an neglected component of a Portable Appliance Test, quite often, you’ll see a test that is conducted with a label attached to the device, and that’s it. It’s not simply that this isn’t adhering to the guidelines set out in the IET guide however, it is also not following an instruction regarding the maintenance of the apparatus.

The initial document you have to submit is a complete list of the electrical equipment used by the company. This is the electronic equipment registration. The minimum requirements are that it should contain:

  • This is the model or the name of the piece of equipment
  • An equipment number
  • This is the date on when the company bought it
  • Its location of residence
  • Equipment type
  • Last date for the last PAT testing.
  • This is the date of your next test of PAT.

This data can help those conducting the test in identifying and locate the equipment as well in determining what the history of equipment. This is helpful in determining how often the equipment is used to conduct tests.

The other form that is required to be completed is the combination inspection form. It will give details of results from the combination inspection and testing on the apparatus. Examples of the information to be in this document include:

  • *The date the inspector inspected
  • Does it work in the correct setting?
  • Did you have the right to disconnect, in case necessary
  • The condition of the connector, the flexible cable, and structure of the device
  • Test results are based on any tests carried out
  • Can they be safe for you to make usage of?
  • A signature of the person who is in charge of the job

The final document required is the one that is usually overlooked, and that is a Repair Register for equipment that is defective and a Faulty Equipment Register. It should contain the following information:

  • Date the equipment was removed of service
  • An overview of the equipment
  • Its equipment number
  • Its normal place
  • The reasons for being removed from the service

The same as the time an item is taken out of use, it’s also the date it was returned to the owner, and the item is suitable for use.

Visual Inspection:

Visual inspections must be completed prior to performing all electrical testing. While what you’re examining will differ from one thing in the same way, there’s certain items you need to verify every time you are able to. This list is not comprehensive, but it does cover the basics.

  1. Any visible indication of wear or damage to the device, it may be scratch marks in its casing, scratches, etc.
  2. There are any indications or signs of damage that thermal energy to your equipment? Do you notice signs of excessive temperatures e.g.scorch marks, discoloration or scratches, you may even be able smell the heat.
  3. Are there any indications of obvious damaged to the cables Do you notice cracks or scratches on the exterior sheathing?Are you able to view the insulation’s inner layers? Do you be able to see the conductor exposed
  4. Any indications of thermal damage to the leads? Do you notice scorch or discoloration?
  5. Do you see any indications of damage on the plug? Do you notice cracks?Do the plugs have loose pins and If the device was made in 1994, do you have the pins inside a sleeve?
  6. Any indication or evidence of the damage due to thermal force the plug include burn marks or discoloration
  7. Fuse – is the correct size fuse been set up?
  8. Wiring – If the plug is a Re-wire able type, it’s always an ideal suggestion to make sure that it’s correctly wired and the connectors are safe
  9. Other elements to consider are the machines of the correct design for the space they will be used in?Are the machines located in a proper position being used i.e. there are no damaged or trailing leads. If the equipment requires plenty of space for ventilation around it and is it fitted with the ventilation it requires.The findings of the inspection using visual methods should be recorded using the combined inspection and testing form.


Before we review the particulars of the tests needed, we will then look at the equipment required for testing. There are several choices to make when selecting the testing equipment for Portable Appliance testing, however it is possible to divide it into two types of testers for PAT that are distinct and dedicated test equipment.

Testers for PAT come offered in a variety of designs and levels of complexity. On the lower end, there are simple tests that check and notify users whether the test passes or is not passing. The more advanced versions display the results of tests as numbers that will need an interpretation based on the guidelines set out in the IET Code of Practice as could be able to perform more than the standard tests.

A separate test device can be utilized for Portable Appliance Testing. This could involve using an earth continuity tester, as along with an isolation resistance tester multi-function tester that is able to perform the two functions. If testing equipment like this is used for testing, the earth continuity device should be fitted with an appropriate test voltage between 20mA and 200mA. Additionally, an insulation tester needs to be able of applying the tester’s voltage within the 500VDC range. If you have an independent test device the adaptor plug may be needed to conduct this test.

These are the two most important tests to be completed through portable testers. A few PAT testers specifically made to perform other tests, like the test for a touch load or current test. These are nice to have however they aren’t required.

Test for Earth’s continuity:

The test is the primary test to be conducted, and is only appropriate for Class I equipment since the equipment utilizes earthling for its fault protection. The goal of this test is to make sure that all the conductors inside the equipment (such as the casing made from metal that is the heating fan) which may be live in the event of a fault connect to the device’s earth connection. In most instances, access to the device’s earth terminal will be a challenge and therefore conducting the test via the device’s leads is the best choice. This Code of Practice outlines the acceptable readings that the equipment should reach so that it can pass the tests.

The resistance to insulation:

The test is performed using different ways. It is important to be aware that some electrical gadgets, especially devices that are very vulnerable to this type of test, and could cause irreparable harm if not performed in a correct method. This test is carried out with Class I or Class II devices.

The first is what’s called the application voltage method. This involves connecting the line and neutral conductors and exposing them 500V DC. Then, you take measures between them as well as the ground. The minimum acceptable values are found in the IET Code of Practice.

3 and 2 methods are related to as leakage used by earth and the method that uses an electric current. They require the use of a special PAT tester.

Functional testing:

If the piece of equipment been tested and passed, the only thing to determine is whether the equipment functions precisely as it should. Certain PAT testers have the option for testing load which tests on the apparatus to make sure that it is operating according to specs. If this alternative isn’t available, the next step is connecting the electric system to examine whether the system is operating exactly how it’s intended to.

After tests have been completed the test results as well as whether the equipment performed or not is to be recorded in the document that is combined for examination and test.


The usual use of HTML0 will be to label the device by marking the date they tested it, when it was tested, the duration of the Portable Appliance Testing, when the next test will be scheduled, and the results of testing. Labels come in various styles and it is essential to make sure that the label you’re attaching meets the specifications of the equipment, blogs.

A small, unobtrusive label affixed on the rear of an office printer could suffice for daily usage without breaking off. A similar label attached to the frames of an angle grinder might be broken off or become worn out until it is impossible to read. There are numerous options, however the most durable ones to use and last the longest are typically ones that have clear connectors. These can be snapped over a sticky sticker, postman pat, which is fixed to the electrical wire of the device or appliance.